Royal Canadian Mint

Royal Canadian Mint Precious Metals

The Royal Canadian Mint is one of the most well-known bullion manufacturers in the world, and it is sometimes compared to the United States Mint. The Royal Canadian Mint’s Maple Leaf is widely regarded as one of the most renowned and first bullion coins, weighing 99.99 percent precious metals such as gold, silver, platinum, and palladium.

Even if you’re unfamiliar with the RCM, you may recall the Maple Leaf coin, which depicts the Maple Leaf and Queen Elizabeth as Canada’s Sovereign. The Royal Canadian Mint is a royal company and a national mint.

The mint is responsible to its parliament and the minister in this country. As a result, all relevant information and acts are passed by parliament. The Royal Canadian Mint has been acting with such liabilities under the Royal Canadian Mint act.

Queen Elizabeth has been the Queen of Canada since 1952, and like all the commonwealth countries, she is only an institutional Monarch. But still, the Queen is the head of state and the Canadian Sovereign, and the Queen is the representative of Canada in foreign countries. Royal Canadian Mint is the sole producer of all the circulation coins of Canada, and they are also a producer of coins from other mints.

Royal Canadian Mint is the producer of:

  • Gold Bullion coins and bars
  • Silver Bullion coins and bars
  • Platinum bullion coins and bars
  • Palladium Bullion coins and bars
  • Medals
  • Medallions
  • Tokens
  • Refinery precious metals
  • Assayed precious metals

Royal Canadian Mint is the producer of national coins and precious metals bullion, but like private companies, they are a profit anticipated company. This means they do not rely on the taxpayer’s money but rather do their business independently, even with other countries. Many private companies and corporations have their own board of directors with a chair, a CEO, and eight other directors on the way.

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History of Royal Canadian Mint (RCM)

History of Royal Canadian Mint (RCM)

The first coin was struck in 1858 in the province of Canada, and it was a cent. Before that, all the Canadian currency was struck in The Royal Mint of London, Heaton Mint of Birmingham, etc. But fifty years later, Royal Canadian Mint started its operation of circulation of coins in their Ottawa Mint with master tools.

It happened when Canada was recognized as an independent country without the rule of the British Empire. The need for Canadian currency increased with time, and the Ottawa Facility of the Royal Canadian Mint was authorized in 1901, ten years later after it was first proposed.

The first coin struck was a 50-cent coin, and the Ottawa branch started with only 61 employees. And in 1911, the Ottawa Branch started its department for refining gold by electrolysis. But later, it was changed to the chlorination process as the former was time-consuming.

The Royal Canadian Mint was then developed to produce a high amount of precious bullion. The character of the Royal Mint has changed over the years, and many things have been added and discarded likewise. Today the Facility processes gold with a combination of Chlorination and Electrolysis.

In 2006, Royal Canadian Mint added silver to their list, and with this, they built a state-of-the-art facility in Ottawa Branch under Canadian control. The silver Refineries consisted of electrolysis and oxygen analysis. The Ottawa branch of the mint was later known as Royal Canadian Mint, and the authority power was given to the state of Canada. But later, in 1960, it was recognized as the Crown Corporation.

The Royal Canadian Mint is not controlled by the Ministry of Finance but rather has its independent operations and resources. The Ottawa facility currently produces commemorative coins, collectors coins, bullion coins, bars, wafers, metals, grains, and medallions with their new chlorination process and an additional facility. There are also laboratories and refineries for both gold and silver, and there is also the R+D research team in there.

When the Ottawa Facility of the Royal Canadian Mint had reached its capacity, it was decided that they required a new Facility besides Quebec, as the private Heaton Mint even minted some coins. Many places like Ontario, Manitoba, etc., were suggested as the new Facility, but finally, Winnipeg was decided as the new branch of the Royal Canadian Mint.

The construction of the Winnipeg facility began in 1972, and it can be recognized as one of the stood-out places in the state. The Facility began its operations in 1976. The Ottawa Facility is completely focused on collectors coins, and the Winnipeg mint serves all production of circulation coins for Canada along with the foreign coins with high purity gold.

There are almost 70 countries that are the direct buyer of the Royal Canadian Mint. The foreign countries for the Winnepeg Facility are:

  • New Zealand
  • Uganda
  • Barbados
  • Thailand
  • Hong-Kong
  • Columbia
  • Yemen
  • Norway
  • Cuba
  • Iceland, etc.

Departure from the Royal Mint

The Royal Canadian Mints Ottawa branch would act as the branch of the Royal Mint until the country’s independence from Britain in 1931. But the country has been independent since 1982, and it took the mint fifty-one years to negotiate its independence from the Royal mint. With this, the Royal Canadian Mint act was passed in 1985, and the Ottawa, Ontario branch was the first Facility for the Royal Canadian Mint, and the coinage increased eventually.

About the Royal Canadian Mint Act

The Royal Canadian Mint embarked specifies some facts and information regarding the mint’s production and management. According to this act

  1. The mint can circulate any base metal which is not precious metal. These coins are used for day-to-day transactions in Canada.
  1. Two individuals are appointed as the head of the mint, the president of the Royal Canadian Mint, who is also known as the Master of the mint, and the other one is the finance minister.
  1. The Royal Canadian Mint has the right to produce Uncirculated coins, which can be made up of base metal or precious metal.
  1. They can produce coins and bullion from silver, gold, platinum, and palladium, considered precious metals.
  1. A board of directors ate constituted by the president of the Master of the Mint.
  1. The mint is an objective of profit, and they can conduct their business independently.
  1. The head office of the Royal Canadian Mint is stated in Canada’s Capital Region.
  1. The mint will be given forty million dollars and divided into ten thousand dollars of shares.
  1. The Royal Canadian Mint has the right to produce coins from Canada and foreign countries.
  1. Melt, assay, and refined gold can be the products of the mint.
  1. The Royal Canadian Mint has the right to decide the design, denominations, and characteristics of the currency or coins.
  1. All the coins produced for Canada will be delivered to the Finance Ministry, and they will control all the circulation.

The Royal Canadian Mint act contains more information, but here we only include a few of them and the mentionable ones.

Executive Team of Royal Canadian Mint

Royal Canadian Mint Team

Currently, the Royal Canadian Mint is operating as a private company and serving public policy. This means that they are not entirely dependent on the taxpayer’s money but employ their own business for their Facility.

As the mint was connected to the Crown Corporation, they had the right to perform their managerial conduct independently, and mostly the Royal Canadian Mint does its business on a commercial basis.

The Executive Members of the Royal Canadian Mint consist of a chairman, the president, and CEO, and the directors. The CEO and the president are known as the Master of the Mint. The Ministry of Finance is responsible for the Royal Canadian Mint. The company currently has four lines of business:

  1. Canadian Circulation
  1. Foreign Coin and Bullion Services
  1. Bullion and Refinery Services and
  1. Numismatics Services, performed at Ottawa Facility.

Board of Directors  

  • Phyllis Clark
  • Sandip K. Lalli
  • Fiona L. Mcdonald
  • Gilles Party
  • Barry M. Rivelis
  • Pina Melchionna
  • Serge Falardeau
  • Cybele Nergis
  • Deborah Shannon Trudeau
  • Victor L. Young

Master of Mint/president/CEO  

  • Marie Lemay

Refinery of Royal Canadian Mint

The mint is the famous Refinery and production ant globally, and they’re also a producer of different Foreign Coins. The company provides services on assaying, refining, and secured storage. The mint is an advanced Refinery for base metals and precious metals, and its collection comes from a variety of sources.

They act as primary producers, recyclers, refiners, and financial institutions. The company uses the chlorination process and electrolysis to produce refined gold. The chlorination process is fast, and 99.95% of pure gold can be extracted from the ores. The miller Chlorination process is an industrial-scale procedure where steamed chlorine is used over the molten and impure gold.

Royal Canadian Mint produced its first 99.999% pure gold Maple Leaf coin in 2007, and it was a limited edition 1-ounce coin. Later a promotional version of the Maple Leaf coin of 100 kilograms was also released, and investment buyers bought it.

For silver refining, the RCM has established a state of Art Facility in Ottawa, using an oxygen converter and electrolysis to extract 99.99% pure silver. The silver counterparts of the Maple Leaf are made up of 0.9999 pure silver.

Canada’s Circulation Coinage By Royal Canadian Mint

RCM Coin

The Winnepeg Refinery produces almost all of Canada’s circulation coins, and the production is directed towards the Ministry of Finance, which handles all the coinage facts. In recent years around two billion coins have been struck in the Facility.

Most of these coins present the portrait of Queen Elizabeth as the Queen of Canada on the obverse side. But the reverse side of the coin changes every now and then. The mint also releases several commemorative coins to celebrate the history and culture of the country. Since 2000 multi-ply plated steel has been used except the CAD 1 and $2CAD.

1 Cent Canadian Coins 

  • 1858 Canadian 1 Cent Penny
  • 1859 Canadian 1 Cent Penny
  • 1861 Canadian 1 Cent Penny
  • 1864 Canadian 1 Cent Penny
  • 1871 Prince Edward Island 1 Cent Penny
  • 1907 Newfound 1 Cent Large
  • 1943 Canadian 1 Cent Maple Leaf Twig
  • 1966 Canadian 1-cent Maple Leaf Twig
  • 1967 (1867-) Canadian 1-cent Rock Dove Confederation Centennial Penny Original
  • 1971 Canadian 1-cent Maple Leaf Twig Coin
  • 1975 Canadian 1-cent Maple Leaf Twig Coin
  • 1980 Canadian 1-cent Maple Leaf Twig Coin
  • 1982 Canadian 1-cent Maple Leaf Twig Penny Coin
  • 1988 Canadian 1-cent Maple Leaf Twig Coin
  • 2002 (1952-) Canadian 1-cent Maple Leaf Twig/Queen’s Jubilee Penny Original Coin
  • 2003 Canadian 1-cent Maple Leaf Twig/Effigy Coin
  • 2006 NON-MAGNETIC Canadian 1-cent Twig Penny Coin

5 Cent Coins 

The V sign in the 5CAD was added to celebrate the victory of 1943. Later the composition of the metal was changed to nickels and chromium-plated steel. The V sign emerged from Winston Churchills V sign and stayed on the coins until 1912. There was even a morse code added on the coin along the rim.

  • 1952 Canadian 5 Cent Large Coin
  • 1926 FAR 6 Canadian 5 Cent Coin
  • 1926 NEAR 6 Canadian 5-cent Nickel
  • 1967 (1867-) Canadian 5-cent Rabbit/Hare Confederation Centennial Nickel Coin
  • 1968 Canadian 5-cent Beaver
  • 1977 HIGH 7 Canadian 5-cent Beaver Nickel Coin
  • 1977 LOW 7 Canadian 5-cent Beaver
  • 1979 Canadian 5-cent Beaver
  • 1980 Canadian 5-cent Beaver Nickel
  • 1986 Canadian 5-cent Beaver Nickel
  • 1988 Canadian 5-cent Beaver Nickel
  • 1991 Canadian 5-cent Beaver Nickel
  • 1992 (1867-) Canadian 5-cent Beaver/Confederation 125th Anniv Nickel Coin
  • 1996 NEAR 6 Canadian 5-cent Beaver Nickel
  • 2000-W Canadian 5-cent Beaver Nickel Proof-like (PL) Coin
  • 2003-P Canadian 5-cent Beaver/Old Effigy
  • 2005-P (1945-) Canadian 5-cent Victory Ve-day 60th Anniv Nickel Coin
  • 2016 Canadian 5-cent Beaver Nickel
  • 2021 Canadian 5-cent Beaver Nickel

10 Cent Coins 

  • 1931 Canadian 10-cent Small Leaves Silver
  • 1969 Canadian 10-cent Bluenose Schooner
  • 1992 (1867-) Canadian 10-cent Bluenose Schooner/Confederation 125th Anniv Dime Coin
  • 1997 Canadian 10-cent Bluenose Schooner
  • 1999 Canadian 10-cent Bluenose Schooner
  • 1998 Canadian 10-cent Bluenose
  • 2000-W Canadian 10-cent Bluenose Schooner Dime Proof-like (PL) Coin
  • 2007 Canadian 10-cent Bluenose, Straight’ 7.’
  • 2014 Canadian 10-cent Bluenose Schooner
  • 2021 (1921-) Canadian Bluenose Schooner 100th Anniv Coloured Dime Coin
  • 2022 Canadian 10-cent Bluenose Schooner

25 Cent Coins 

In 1973 the Royal Canadian Mint replaced the Caribou from the 5-cent coin, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police was given its place. An officer striding a horse was the depiction of the reverse side. This was done to celebrate the centennial of the founding of RCMP.

  • 1967 (1867-) Canadian Bobcat Confederation Centennial Silver Quarter Coin
  • 1968 Canadian Caribou
  • 1969 Canadian Caribou Coin
  • 1973 (1873-) SMALL BUST Canadian RCMP Mounted Police Centennial Coin
  • 1992 (1867-) Canadian t Alberta Confederation 125th Anniv/Provincial Quarter Coin
  • 2004-P (1604-) Canadian le St Croix/First French Settlement 400th Anniv Quarter Coin
  • 2006-P Pink Ribbon, Breast Cancer Awareness Quarter Coin
  • 2006 Caribou/Mint Logo Quarter Coin

50 cent coins 

  • 1980 Canadian Coat Of Arms Half Dollars Coins
  • 1978 SQUARE JEWELS Canadian Coat Of Arms Half Dollars Coins
  • 1981 Coat Of Arms Coins
  • 1983 Coat Of Arms Half Dollars
  • 1986 Coat Of Arms Half Dollars Coins
  • 1992 (1867-) Coat Of Arms/Confederation Half Dollars Coins
  • 1998-W Canadian Coat Of Arms Half Dollars
  • 2006-P Canadian Coat Of Arms Half Dollars

$1 coins 

There is a loon gracing the reverse side of the one-dollar Canadian coinage, which was first released in 1980. Voyager Canoe has been in the $1 for quite some time. But as the master reverse die was lost, a new design with the loonie emerged.

  • 1968 Canadian Voyageur
  • 1969 Canadian Voyageur Dollar Coin
  • 1970 (1870-) Canadian Manitoba Centennial Dollar Coin
  • 1971 (1871-) Canadian British Columbia Centennial Dollar Coin
  • 1972 Canadian Voyageur Dollar
  • Ollar Specimen Coin
  • 2005 Canadian Tufted Puffin Dollar
  • 2005 Canadian Terry Fox Marathon Of Hope 25th Anniv Loonie
  • 2006 Canadian Snowy Owl Dollar Specimen Coin
  • 2007 Canadian Trumpeter Swan Dollar
  • 2008 Canadian Common Eider Dollar
  • 2009 (1909-) Canadian Montreal Canadiens Centennial Loonie Dollar
  • 2012 Canadian $1 25th Anniversary Of The Loonie Dollar
  • 2015 Canadian Blue Jay Dollar Specimen Coin
  • 2017 (1867-) Canadian $1 Connecting A Nation 150th Anniv Loonie Dollar
  • 2020 (1945-) Canadian Signing Of The United Nations Charter 75th Anniv Coloured Loonie Dollar

Royal Canadian Mint Released Bullion Products

Bullion products are mostly made of precious metals like gold, silver, and platinum-graded metals. RCM has listed an extensive amount of bullion out of gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. Here we are including some of the products made up of precious metals.

Gold Maple Leaf Coins

In 1979 the first gold maple leaf was released by RCM, which featured a Maple leaf, the national symbol of Canada, on its reverse side. The fineness of this coin has changed over the years. First, the Canadian Royal mint released the gold maple leaf with the fineness of 0.999, then 0.9999, and later it was 0.99999. There are also different sizes of the gold Maple Leaf as precious metals, and there are, of course, the special edition coins to count. The 10th anniversary of Maple Leaf, 25th anniversary of RCM, and 125th anniversary of RCPM were celebrated with the special editions.

  • 2022 1-ounce Canadian Maple Leaf Gold Coins
  • 2021 1-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 2020 1-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 2019 1-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 2018 1-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 2017 1-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 2016 1-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 2012 1-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 2009 1-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 2007 1-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 1991 1-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 1/2-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 1/4-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 1/10-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 1 Gram Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
  • 1/20-ounce Gold Canadian Maple Leaf

Silver Maple Leaf Coins 

The silver maple leaf was first released in 1988, and it resembles its gold counterparts pretty closely. The silver maple leaf was made out of 99.999% pure silver, considered an investment-grade coin. This is an IRA-approved coin, and many investors add the coin to their investment portfolio for metal diversification. The popularity of the silver RCM maples has reached far and beyond North America.

  • 2021 1-ounce Canadian Maple Leaf Silver Coins
  • 2019 1-ounce Canadian Maple Leaf Silver Coins
  • 2018 1-ounce Canadian Maple Leaf Silver Coins
  • 2016 1-ounce Canadian Maple Leaf Silver Coins
  • 2015 1-ounce Canadian Maple Leaf Silver Coins
  • 2014 1-ounce Canadian Maple Leaf Silver Coins

Platinum and Palladium Maple Leafs  

The first Palladium Maple lead was minted in 2005. The gold and silver counterparts of the Maples were pretty famous amongst the investors as Canadian coins. The Royal Canadian Mint decided to input Platinum and palladium as limited-edition coins between 2005 and 2009.

The platinum coins were first struck in 1988 and come in various sizes. The platinum coin was also added to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the RCM Maple Leaf, and this came in five-set coins with holograms.

  • 1-ounce platinum maple leaf

Royal Canadian Mint Predator series

These silver coins were made to celebrate the extinguishing and exclusive wildlife of the Canadian wilderness. The coins are made up of 99.99% of fine silver, which is a fascinating fact for collectors and investors. The first predator coin was released back in 2006, which featured a cougar. Cougar is a predator with sharp claws and fangs. Here the cougar is in the position of its probable hunts.

  • 1 Ounce Silver Grizzly Coins- RCM Predators
  • 1 Ounce Silver Wolf Coins- RCM Predators
  • 1 Ounce Silver Lynx Coins- RCM Predators
  • 1 Ounce Silver Cougar Coins- RCM Predators

RCM Birds of Prey Series

This is a series of gold coins first released in 2014 as multi-ply plating technology. The series features predator birds and Canadian wildlife all over Canada in their natural Habitat. Unlike the RCM Maple Leaf gold, the birds of prey series are not as famous as collector coins, but it is the next best thing for bullion investors. The series is similar to the Predator series and is often a source of attraction for investors and collectors.

  • Silver Red-Tailed Hawk-RCM Birds Of Prey Coins
  • Silver Great Horned Owl-RCM Birds Of Prey Coins
  • Silver Canadian Bald Eagle- RCM Birds Of Prey Coins
  • Silver Peregrine Falcon- RCM Birds Of Prey Coins

Silver Superman Coins

The first Superman movie was released in 1938, and later, he became one of the sensational aliens and a superhero for DC. Every generation had their Superman, and Superman made an appearance everywhere, from comics to movies to series to cartoons like Justice League.

Man of steel is one of the world’s most renowned and recognized figures, and thus Superman made his way to the Royal Canadian Mint silver bullion list. The first superman coins were released in 2016 with the highlighted symbol S on the reverse side. S resembling Superman and his strength, many collectors and investors of silver have pursued this coin with a fascinating interest.

  • 1 Ounce Silver $5 Superman Coin

2010 Vancouver Olympics

This is one of the Numismatic coins released by the Royal Canadian Mint to commemorate the 2010 winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada. The mint has made a 3-year quest to strike these coins, and it is one of the collector’s coins to honor the Olympics and para-Olympic games. This coin comprises 58.3% gold, and the rest is silver.

Bullion Bars

Royal Canadian Mint has released a bunch of bullion bars of different weights and metal amounts, and all of these are investment-grade bars. The Royal Canadian Mint bullion bars are LBMA approved and can be invested in IRA, mutual funds, ETFs, finance markets, and other direct or gold-backed investments.

  • 10 Ounce Silver Bar
  • 100-ounce Silver Bar
  • 1 Kilo Silver Bar
  • 10 Ounce Gold Bar
  • 100-ounce Gold Bar
  • 1 Kilo Gold Bar

Why Should You Choose Royal Canadian Mint Bullion Products?

The RCM is one of the oldest facilities with a clean track record regarding its bullion and investment products. As such, it is pretty clear that if you’re choosing a Royal Canadian Mint bullion, you might have to pay a bit extra for their craftsmanship and precision.

  1. They have been around for more than a century and made their mark as reliable refineries and bullion producers in the world.
  1. They maintain the fineness of their bullion no matter what, and it comes in a convenient package with an assay certificate.
  1. Many foreign countries have faith in the Royal Canadian Mint and have partnered with them to mint their national currency.
  1. The management and the university might seem like a private mint, but they act in the public interest, and the Canadian government is responsible for their conduct.


The Royal Canadian Mint is a well-known mint with a large collection of coins, and it is frequently regarded as a model for other manufacturers and coin collectors. Their bullion is exact and may be used as a collectible and an investment-grade commodity like sterling silver. They are pretty distinctive and frequently have holographic elements to avoid counterfeiting.

Arthur Karter


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