End Notes: Fighting Impunity

Main Article:

Fighting impunity: Recent international asset recovery efforts to combat corruption

1 The UN campaign, teaming up the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the United Nations Office on Drug and Crime (UNODC), has declared corruption to be a “crime against development.” See, Corruption is a Crime Against Development, Says New UN Campaign, at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2009/November/corruption-is-a-crime-against-development-says-new-un-campaign-.html.
2 United Nations Convention Against Corruption art. 51, 3 Dec, 2003 [hereinafter UNCAC].
3 See, UNCAC, supra ch. V.
4 See, UNCAC, supra ch. V.
5 This provision also applies to the public individual’s family members or close associates, See, UNCAC, supra art. 52(1).
6 UNCAC, supra art. 52.
7 UNCAC, supra art. 53.
8 See, eg, Statement From G-20 Summit, at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/16/washington/summit-text.html?pagewanted=1&adxnnlx=1226783523-WU5MnXEoqYR8Uv%20iskgfEg.
9 See, Open-ended Intergovernmental Working Group on Asset Recovery, Asset Recovery on the Road to Doha: Activities Under the Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, (20 March, 2009), at http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/WorkingGroups/workinggroup2/2009-May-14-15/V0981905e.pdf.
10 StAR: World Bank and UNODC, Progress Report, pg. 2 (July 2009), http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSARI/Resources/ProgressReport2009.pdf [herein after StAR Progress Report].
11 See, Road to Doha, at http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/controls-FLASH/RTD_PUBLIC_Final_16-10-2009.html.
12 The Report notes that forty percent of the StAR Initiative’s programmed resources will be allocated to policy analysis and knowledge products. StAR Progress Report at pg. 2.
13 See, G20 Working Group on Reinforcing International Cooperation and Promoting Integrity in Financial Markets, Final Report, London (Apr. 2009).
14 Results of this study were released on 12 November, 2009 in a paper entitled “Stolen Asset Recovery: Politically Exposed Persons – A Policy Paper on Strengthening Preventive Measures,” which was introduced at the Third Session of the Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention Against Corruption.
15 United Nations Treaty Collection (18 Nov, 2009), at http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=UNTSONLINE&tabid=2&mtdsg_no=XVIII-14&chapter=18&lang=en.
16 See, Pavletic, Ivan, The Political Economy of Asset Recovery Processes, at http://www.baselgovernance.org/fileadmin/docs/publications/working_papers/Political_Economy_Final.pdf.
17 Ali Al-Marri, when discussing the review mechanism, stated that “[t]he sword of justice just got sharper.” See, Doha Deal Creates Corruption Monitoring Mechanism, at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2009/November/doha-deal-creates-corruption-monitoring-mechanism-.html
18 For more information about this organization, see http://www.uncaccoalition.org/.
19 See, UN Convention against Corruption Review Mechanism: A Flawed Step Forward, at http://www.transparency.org/news_room/latest_news/press_releases/2009/2009_11_13_review_mechanism_flawed.
20 Id.
21 See, Project Details: Asset Recovery Knowledge Center, at http://www.baselgovernance.org/icar/it-services/project-details/article/asset-recovery-knowledge-centre/?tx_ttnews[backPid]=260&cHash=c2a967a73e.
22 See, Asset Recovery Experts Network, at https://aren.assetrecovery.org